As we’ve seen, when the book of Genesis turns its focus upon Joseph starting with chapter 36, we’re told that he had a dream in which he and his brothers “were binding sheaves of grain out in the field when suddenly” his sheaf “rose and stood upright” while those of his brothers gathered around his and bowed down to it.[1] Then Joseph had a second dream which he told not only to his brothers but also to his father. In this second dream, “the sun and moon and eleven stars were bowing down to” him.[2] In other words, not only Joseph’s brothers, but also his parents would bow down before him. Now because these two dreams are given by God, they will turn out to be true. But before they are realized, dreams had by others will also play a role in Joseph’s life. This morning’s Scripture addresses two of these.

As chapter 40 opens, Joseph was still overseeing the prison where Potiphar, the captain of the guard, had sent him after his wife had falsely accused Joseph of attacking her.[3] Then, as stated beginning with verse 1, “1 Some time later, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt offended their master, the king of Egypt. Pharaoh was angry with his two officials, the chief cupbearer and the chief baker, and put them in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, in the same prison where Joseph was confined. The captain of the guard assigned them to Joseph, and he attended them.” So we have five players here starting with:

Two officials of the king of Egypt: one, the cupbearer;

Two, the baker—both of these men would have been of the same status as the captain of the guard;[4]

Three, the king of Egypt himself, also known as Pharaoh, a title designating a ruler much as “President” is a title designating the ruler of the United States. As the United States has had many Presidents, so did ancient Egypt have many Pharaohs;

Four is the captain of the guard. Now given that the events recounted took place “some time later,” this man may have been either Potiphar, the man who had placed Joseph in prison in the first place,[5] or perhaps more likely, given that he was unnamed and that some time had passed, this may have been a different captain of the guard than the one who initially imprisoned him;

Five and last, we have Joseph himself.

So the cupbearer and baker—men who would have been responsible for providing the king drink and food, respectively, to keep him from being poisoned—had done something to offend Pharaoh. Therefore they were now in custody, that is, they were awaiting their sentence from Pharaoh. Though we don’t know what their offenses were, the verb used here is the same one used earlier when Joseph refused to offend or sin against God when Potiphar’s wife was after him.[6] As one commentator observes, “In contrast to Joseph, who refused to sin against God, the cupbearer and baker have sinned against their lord, who as king of Egypt enjoyed divine status.”[7] Therefore, Pharaoh became angry and sent them to the captain of the guard who was overseeing the prison where Joseph, too, was confined. As luck—I mean, as God’s providence—would have it, the cupbearer and baker were assigned to Joseph who “attended them.”

Beginning with the end of verse 4, we see that even more time passed for “[a]fter they had been in custody for some time, each of the two men—the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were being held in prison—had a dream the same night, and each dream had a meaning of its own.” When Joseph, their attendant, “came to them the next morning,” verse 6, “he saw that they were dejected. So he asked Pharaoh’s officials who were in custody with him in his master’s house, ‘Why do you look so sad today?’” Their response? Verse 8, “We both had dreams, but there is no one to interpret them.” Now not only among Abraham and his descendants but throughout the ancient Near Eastern world, visions and dreams were commonly understood to be a means of divine communication.[8] Yet because of their imprisonment, neither the cupbearer nor baker was able to consult anyone to provide an interpretation for their dreams. And unlike the dreams that Joseph had had earlier, the meaning of their dreams wasn’t self-evident. When Joseph learned the reason for the two men’s sadness, he responded by saying (still in verse 8), “Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell me your dreams.” Notice that Joseph was confident not in his ability to interpret the dreams but in the LORD’s ability to do so. Joseph was confident that the LORD would provide the proper interpretation of the dreams that the two men had had.

The first to share his dream was Pharoah’s chief cupbearer. As recorded in verses 9–11, he told Joseph, “In my dream I saw a vine in front of me, 10 and on the vine were three branches. As soon as it budded, it blossomed, and its clusters ripened into grapes. 11 Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes, squeezed them into Pharaoh’s cup and put the cup in his hand.” The interpretation given Joseph by the LORD follows in verses 12–13: “12 “This is what it means…. The three branches are three days. 13 Within three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your position, and you will put Pharaoh’s cup in his hand, just as you used to do when you were his cupbearer.” This was a propitious dream, indeed! Better days lay ahead for the cupbearer as he would soon be restored to his former position. His sadness no doubt had been turned into joy as a result of Joseph’s interpretation of his dream.

And notice, too, that Joseph was so confident that this interpretation had indeed come from God, that he went on to say to the cupbearer, verse 14, “But when all goes well with you, remember me and show me kindness; mention me to Pharaoh and get me out of this prison.” Joseph knew that the cupbearer would be restored to his former position. He knew this because the LORD was the one who had provided him with the interpretation of his dream. Therefore, Joseph asked the cupbearer that when he was restored to his former position, to please put in a good word for him in order that he might be able to get out of prison. Again, since some time had passed, it’s likely that Potiphar, the captain of the guard responsible for putting him in prison in the first place, was no longer there. The current captain of the guard may not have known the circumstances of his imprisonment. Therefore, Joseph wanted the cupbearer to approach Pharaoh, asking for his release.

He then added, verse 15, “I was forcibly carried off from the land of the Hebrews, and even here I have done nothing to deserve being put in a dungeon.” The word translated as “dungeon” is the same one used earlier when Joseph’s brothers had put him into a pit or cistern,[9] thus providing—at least in Joseph’s mind—a connection between these two events. Joseph had gone from a literal pit to the pit of prison. And though he held a position of responsibility within the prison he was, after all, still in prison. Therefore, understandably, he desired to leave it. Joseph noted specifically that he was in prison not because of any wrong he had had done—as would be the case with most in prison—but because he had been “forcibly carried off from the land of Hebrews” having “done nothing” deserving of imprisonment.

Well, no doubt feeling more hopeful having heard the interpretation of the cupbearer’s dream, “When the chief baker saw that Joseph had given a favorable interpretation, he said to Joseph,” verse 16, “I too had a dream: On my head were three baskets of bread.” Both men’s dreams contained elements of their real-life positions: the cupbearer dreamt of grapes on vines; the baker dreamt of bread and baskets. Continuing to verse 17, the chief baker related, “In the top basket were all kinds of baked goods for Pharaoh, but the birds were eating them out of the basket on my head.” Once the chief baker completed recounting his dream, the LORD once again provided Joseph with the interpretation stated in verses 18–19: “18 This is what it means…. The three baskets are three days. 19 Within three days Pharaoh will lift off your head and impale your body on a pole. And the birds will eat away your flesh.” Whereas concerning the cupbearer, Joseph had said, “Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your position,” concerning the baker he said, “Pharaoh will lift off your head and impale your body on a pole.” The play on words is intentional—lifting up one head as it is restored; lifting off the other as his body is impaled.

That the interpretations given Joseph had indeed come from the LORD is confirmed in verses 20–21: “20 Now the third day was Pharaoh’s birthday,[10] and he gave a feast for all his officials. He lifted up the heads of the chief cupbearer and the chief baker in the presence of his officials: 21 He restored the chief cupbearer to his position, so that he once again put the cup into Pharaoh’s hand— 22 but he impaled the chief baker, just as Joseph had said to them in his interpretation.” So we see that things turned out just the way Joseph had said they would. But there was never any question of this given that the interpretations had come from God.

Unfortunately for Joseph, verse 23, “The chief cupbearer, however, did not remember Joseph; he forgot him.” Though things had turned out just as the LORD had revealed they would for both the cupbearer and baker, Joseph’s time to leave prison had not yet arrived. In fact, he would have to remain in prison for two more years.[11] For two more years he would have to be patient and trust that, unlike the cupbearer, God would remember him—God never forgets those who are his.

For as we’ve seen, Joseph’s life was no less in God’s provident care when he was shepherding sheep for his father as a youth than it was now when he was in charge of Pharaoh’s prison. For despite his undeserved suffering—initially at the hands of his brothers and then at the hands of Potiphar’s wife—his life was ever in the hands of the one, true God who made heaven and earth; his life was ever in the hands of the God of his great grandfather Abraham, grandfather Isaac, and father Jacob. God’s providence, his protective care, can be identified in Joseph’s life:

in the two dreams God gave him when he was seventeen years old;

and in his rising to rule over Potiphar’s house after being cruelly sold off by his brothers;

and in his rising to rule over the prison when he was unjustly thrown in there by Potiphar.

Though these outcomes may have been far from ideal, they nonetheless demonstrate—as we saw last week—that through thick and thin the LORD was ever with Joseph. For the LORD is Immanuel, God with us.

But the aspect of Joseph’s life I’d like to reflect upon a little further this morning is the ability God had given him to correctly interpret the dreams of the cupbearer and baker. For as we saw stated in verse 8, Joseph understood that “interpretations belong to God,” not him. This is the only reason why Joseph’s interpretations of the two men’s dreams had been correct. What is more, this confidence in God’s Word—in the truth of it—is one that we should have as well; this confidence in God’s Word—in the truth of it—is one that we can have for both the Old and New Testament Scriptures are human words, yes; but they are human words that were supervised by God who made us and everything that exists. For God is the one who directed the Old Testament prophets to prophesy; and God is the one who directed the New Testament apostles to testify. And because God was behind everything that has been preserved for us in his Word, we can have confidence that what these Scriptures state and teach is true. What Scripture states and teaches is true because God directed not only the events themselves but the recording of these events by way of its human—and Divine—authors.

This truth is also at the heart of Peter’s pronouncement in our New Testament passage from 2 Peter 1. Concerning his own testimony, Peter begins by declaring in verse 16: “For we did not follow cleverly devised stories when we told you about the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in power, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty.” What Peter states concerning Jesus Christ isn’t a myth. It isn’t a legend. It isn’t a “cleverly devised” story without grounding in facts. No, what Peter declares concerning Jesus Christ is grounded in facts. For what he declares concerning “the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in power” is a truth that he himself witnessed.

He then goes on to provide what was probably the most memorable instance of “the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in power;” of the “majesty” of Jesus Christ. As stated in verse 17, “He received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, ‘This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.’” These are, of course, the words that were pronounced by the heavenly Father at his Son’s Transfiguration during which two Old Testament figures, Moses and Elijah, appeared and spoke with Jesus.[12] This event was so significant, that three of the four Gospels—Mattthew, Mark, and Luke—record it.[13] This is why Peter speaks in the first person plural “we.” In this instance, this isn’t the “royal we” literary device, rather he’s speaking literally for, again, three Gospels note that it wasn’t only Peter but also James and John—the three who together formed Jesus’ inner circle of disciples[14]—who heard this voice.[15] As Peter goes on to state in verse 18, “We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain.”

Now in owning his Son whom he loved; in owning the Son with whom he was well pleased, the Father was underscoring the fact that Jesus, like the Father himself, was God. Therefore, he is worthy of the honor and glory bestowed upon him by the Father. What is more, as one commentator notes, “In Christ’s transfiguration the disciples received a foretaste of what his coming will be like when he returns to establish his eternal kingdom.”[16] Another similarly states, “The Transfiguration is understood by the apostles to have been a brief anticipation of the divine glory with which Christ will return to the earth.”[17] Now why are these scholars stating this? Well, do you recall when Jesus declared, “Truly I tell you, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom”? In all three Gospels, this statement is followed by the account of the Transfiguration.[18] Jesus’ Transfiguration is the event that occurred prior to the death of Peter and others that allowed them to see “the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.” In their eyewitness account to this magnificent occurrence, Peter—and James and John who were with him—did indeed receive a foretaste of Christ’s eternal kingdom and return as they saw Moses and Elijah, saints who had died, alive by the power of God in Christ Jesus.

Peter then transitions from his own day to the time in which the Old Testament, or Hebrew Scriptures, were revealed by God. As he and the other apostles are faithful witnesses, so too were the prophets. As stated beginning with verse 19, “We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable”—other translations say “more sure”[19] or “more fully confirmed”[20] but the meaning is clear: If the prophetic message is completely reliable, then whatever has been prophesied will certainly come to pass, even as Joseph’s interpretation of the dreams of Pharaoh’s cupbearer and baker certainly came to pass. And as was the case with Joseph, the prophetic message is completely reliable because its origin is none other than God himself. The prophetic message is even more sure—not to mention a more complete communication—than the Transfiguration itself! This is why Peter goes on to say, “and you will do well to pay attention to it,….” If God’s Word, given to his prophets and apostles is true; if God’s Word is completely reliable; if God’s Word will certainly come to pass, then all who hear it would “do well to pay attention to it.” Think about it. If we believe a weather forecaster who informs us of rain or snow to come, allowing us to prepare accordingly, how much more ought we to believe the teachings God has given us in his Word and prepare ourselves accordingly?!

As Peter goes on to state, we should heed God’s Word “as to a light shining in a dark place.” We should take heed because apart from Scripture, we can’t know God rightly; apart from Scripture, we can’t know ourselves rightly; apart from Scripture, we can’t navigate life rightly. For apart from God’s Word, we walk in darkness. But God’s Word, like Jesus himself,[21] comes to us as “a light shining in a dark place.” Therefore we ought to take heed of it, Peter goes on to state, “until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts.” In other words, we should take heed of it until Jesus Christ, who is the morning star, returns as Judge and King at the end of the age. As John records Jesus’ words in his Revelation, “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.”[22]

The point here is that though the LORD used fallen and sinful people to bring his Word to the world he had made, God’s involvement with these fallen and sinful people resulted in their being able to communicate accurately the very words that he intended. As Peter states beginning in verse 20, “Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. 21 For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” In other words, the words of Scripture are both human and divine. For humans spoke “as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” In his first letter, Peter similarly teaches concerning the prophets, “It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you, when they spoke of the things that have now been told you by those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven.”[23] Paul, too, teaches that the origin of Scripture is God, not humans as he refers to Scripture as being “God-breathed.”[24]

But not only the words of Scripture but also the proper interpretation of Scripture comes from God. Whether we’re speaking about Joseph—or Moses—or Elijah—or Paul—or Peter, when God’s prophets and apostles spoke, they spoke not according to their own human will but by the Holy Spirit. This is why Joseph’s interpretations of the dreams of the cupbearer and baker are accurate; this is why Moses’ teaching is true; this is why Elijah’s prophecies come to pass; this is why Paul and Peter’s teaching is authoritative: because all spoke by means of God’s Holy Spirit—and, needless to say, this is also why everything our precious Christ Jesus said is true for he is God himself who came in the flesh and is now ruling at the right hand of our Father in heaven!

This is why we say that the Bible—a word that in the Greek simply means “book”[25]—is Holy. The reason the Bible is a Holy book is because it comes from a Holy God. God is its author. He is the one who chose its human authors. He is the one who worked in the lives of these human authors by his Holy Spirit such that the words that they recorded are the very words that God intended. And these Holy Words from God are intended to make us holy, even as he is. They’re intended to make us holy not only individually but as his children, as his family. For in a fallen, sinful world holiness—that is, learning to be like God—is hard work. Therefore God has given us his Holy Word—and his Holy Spirit—and his Holy family—that is, each another—in order that we might know and love and become like him, full of grace—and kindness—and compassion—and justice—and truth.

Therefore, brothers and sisters, let us listen to Peter and pay attention to God’s Word;

Let us follow and embrace it as a light shining in a dark place;

Let us follow and embrace and share it with others until Jesus Christ, who declared himself to be the Light of the world,[26] returns to finally redeem this world he has made as he welcomes into his Kingdom those who have believed in him and in the Scriptures he has left, and condemns those who have not believed in him or in the Scriptures he has left.

For, make no mistake—what God has declared in his Word will come to pass for God will keep every promise he has made for he is ever true to himself. But the good news is that no one need suffer God’s condemnation for he has told us the price of eternal life: namely, that we acknowledge our sin, our turning away from God; and confess our sin to him as we seek and receive his forgiveness; and turn to him in order that we might know and love and be with him—and he with us—not only now but for all eternity. For this is the Good News of the Gospel: That Christ Jesus, concerning whom all of the Old Testament Scriptures teach,[27] came not to condemn the world he has made but to save any and all who believe and receive him as their Savior and LORD![28] This is what he teaches in his Holy Bible. Therefore let us believe and receive him. For this is what will come to pass.

Let us pray.

Benediction: Hebrews 13:20–21: 20 Now may the God of peace, who through the blood of the eternal covenant brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, 21 equip you with everything good for doing his will, and may he work in us what is pleasing to him, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

 

[1] Genesis 37:5–6:Joseph had a dream, and when he told it to his brothers, they hated him all the more. He said to them, ‘Listen to this dream I had: We were binding sheaves of grain out in the field when suddenly my sheaf rose and stood upright, while your sheaves gathered around mine and bowed down to it.’” See sermon preached on January 24, 2021, Truth and Light on Genesis 37.

[2] Genesis 37:9–11:Then he had another dream, and he told it to his brothers. “Listen,” he said, “I had another dream, and this time the sun and moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 10 When he told his father as well as his brothers, his father rebuked him and said, “What is this dream you had? Will your mother and I and your brothers actually come and bow down to the ground before you?” 11 His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the matter in mind.

[3] Genesis 39:16–20: 16 She kept his cloak beside her until his master came home. 17 Then she told him this story: “That Hebrew slave you brought us came to me to make sport of me. 18 But as soon as I screamed for help, he left his cloak beside me and ran out of the house.” 19 When his master heard the story his wife told him, saying, “This is how your slave treated me,” he burned with anger. 20 Joseph’s master took him and put him in prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were confined

[4] Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Genesis 40:2–3 states, “The Hebrew terms (saris and sar) used to denote the status of the cupbearer and baker are identical to those used of Potiphar (see 37:36; 39:1).”

[5] See Genesis 37:36: Meanwhile, the Midianites sold Joseph in Egypt to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh’s officials, the captain of the guard.; Genesis 39:1: Now Joseph had been taken down to Egypt. Potiphar, an Egyptian who was one of Pharaoh’s officials, the captain of the guard, bought him from the Ishmaelites who had taken him there.

[6] Genesis 39:9: No one is greater in this house than I am. My master has withheld nothing from me except you, because you are his wife. How then could I do such a wicked thing and sin against God?” Emphasis added.

[7] Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Genesis 40:1. Emphasis added.

[8] E.g., Abraham’s vision beginning with Genesis 15:1: After this, the word of the Lord came to Abram in a vision: “Do not be afraid, Abram. I am your shield, your very great reward.; Jacob’s dream at Bethel beginning with Genesis 28:12: He had a dream in which he saw a stairway resting on the earth, with its top reaching to heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it.

[9] Genesis 37:21–24: 21 When Reuben[9] heard this, he tried to rescue him from their hands. “Let’s not take his life,” he said. 22 “Don’t shed any blood. Throw him into this cistern here in the wilderness, but don’t lay a hand on him.” Reuben said this to rescue him from them and take him back to his father. 23 So when Joseph came to his brothers, they stripped him of his robe—the ornate robe he was wearing— 24 and they took him and threw him into the cistern. The cistern was empty; there was no water in it.

[10] The Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Genesis 40:20–22 states this could have been his actual birthday or the anniversary of his accession to the throne—a day upon which amnesties were often granted.

[11] Genesis 41:1a: When two full years had passed, Pharaoh had a dream….

[12] Although the context makes clear that Jesus’ Transfiguration is what Peter is referring to here, the heavenly Father testified of his Son at his baptism using similar words. See Matthew 3:16–17: 16 As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. 17 And a voice from heaven said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased;” Mark 1:9–11: At that time Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 10 Just as Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 11 And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased;” Luke 3:21–22: 21 When all the people were being baptized, Jesus was baptized too. And as he was praying, heaven was opened 22 and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.” In the Gospel of John, John tells of John the Baptist’s testimony upon baptizing Jesus. See John 1:29–34: 29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 30 This is the one I meant when I said, ‘A man who comes after me has surpassed me because he was before me.’ 31 I myself did not know him, but the reason I came baptizing with water was that he might be revealed to Israel.” 32 Then John gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on him. 33 And I myself did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is the one who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’ 34 I have seen and I testify that this is God’s Chosen One.” Too, the apostle John also relates the heavenly Father’s words prior to Jesus being crucified. As recorded in John 12:27–32:27 Now my soul is troubled, and what shall I say? ‘Father, save me from this hour’? No, it was for this very reason I came to this hour. 28 Father, glorify your name!” Then a voice came from heaven, “I have glorified it, and will glorify it again.” 29 The crowd that was there and heard it said it had thundered; others said an angel had spoken to him. 30 Jesus said, “This voice was for your benefit, not mine. 31 Now is the time for judgment on this world; now the prince of this world will be driven out. 32 And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.” 33 He said this to show the kind of death he was going to die.

[13] Matthew 17:5b: “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen to him!” Mark 9:7b: “This is my Son, whom I love. Listen to him!” Luke 9:35b: “This is my Son, whom I have chosen; listen to him.”

[14] These three were present not only at the Transfiguration but also when Jesus raised Jairus’s daughter from the dead and when Jesus prayed at the Garden of Gethsemane.

[15] Matthew 17:1–2: 1 After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James and John the brother of James, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became as white as the light.; Mark 9:2–3:After six days Jesus took Peter, James and John with him and led them up a high mountain, where they were all alone. There he was transfigured before them. His clothes became dazzling white, whiter than anyone in the world could bleach them.; Luke 9:28–29: 28 About eight days after Jesus said this, he took Peter, John and James with him and went up onto a mountain to pray. 29 As he was praying, the appearance of his face changed, and his clothes became as bright as a flash of lightning.

[16] Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on 2 Peter 1:16.

[17] Reformation ESV Study Bible note on 2 Peter 1:16.

[18] Emphasis added. Matthew’s Gospel makes this statement in the last verse of Matthew 16:28—and the Transfiguration follows in the first verse of Matthew 17; Mark states it in the first verse of Mark 9:1—and the Transfiguration follows in Mark 9:2ff. Luke states it in Luke 9:27—and the Transfiguration follows beginning with Luke 9:28ff.

[19] RSV: And we have the prophetic word made more sure.; KJV: We have also a more sure word of prophecy;

[20] ESV: And we have the prophetic word more fully confirmed,….

 

[21] See 1 John 1:4–5:In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.

[22] Revelation 22:16. This is probably an allusion to Numbers 24:17: “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near. A star will come out of Jacob; a scepter will rise out of Israel. He will crush the foreheads of Moab, the skulls of all the people of Sheth.” See also Revelation 2:26–29: 26 To the one who is victorious and does my will to the end, I will give authority over the nations— 27 that one ‘will rule them with an iron scepter and will dash them to pieces like pottery’[Psalm 2:9]—just as I have received authority from my Father. 28 I will also give that one the morning star. 29 Whoever has ears, let them hear what the Spirit says to the churches.

[23] 1 Peter 1:12. Emphasis added. The surrounding verses state, 1 Peter 1:10–12: 10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets, who spoke of the grace that was to come to you, searched intently and with the greatest care, 11 trying to find out the time and circumstances to which the Spirit of Christ in them was pointing when he predicted the sufferings of the Messiah and the glories that would follow. 12 It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you, when they spoke of the things that have now been told you by those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven. Even angels long to look into these things.

[24] 2 Timothy 3:16–17: 16 All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, 17 so that the servant of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.

[25] Greek βιβλίον (biblion), -ου, τό. In the ancient world, this would have been a written roll, book. https://www.billmounce.com/greek-dictionary/biblion

[26] John 8:12: When Jesus spoke again to the people, he said, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”

[27] As the risen Christ Jesus said to the disciples on the road to Emmaus, recorded in Luke 24:26–27: 26 Did not the Messiah have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?” 27 And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.

[28] See especially verse 17 from John 3:16–21: 16 For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. 17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. 18 Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because they have not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son. 19 This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but people loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil. 20 Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for fear that their deeds will be exposed. 21 But whoever lives by the truth comes into the light, so that it may be seen plainly that what they have done has been done in the sight of God.