Walking in the Image and Likeness of the LORD

Walking in the Image and Likeness of the LORD

As we’ve previously noted,[1] as soon as the Fall occurred God promised to send Messiah, one who would deliver his people from their guilt, shame, sin—and from attacks from Satan, humanity’s enemy, that ancient serpent. For having deceived the woman and tempted the man, the devil, Satan, who came disguised as one of God’s creatures, was cursed and judged by God. As stated in Genesis 3:15 the LORD God said to the serpent, “I will put enmity”—active hostility—“between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.” And so it was that from this point forward humans were given a choice to follow either in the way of the serpent’s offspring or in the way of the offspring of their Maker.

Last week we saw how Abel chose the way of his Maker whereas his brother, Cain, chose the way of the serpent when he determined to murder his younger brother rather than receive the gentle correction and admonition given him by God. Whereas, as stated by the author of Hebrews, Abel “[b]y faith…was commended as righteous, when God spoke well of his offerings,”[2] Cain, by his lack of faith demonstrated, as stated by the apostle John, that he “belonged to the evil one.”[3] And so we see that following the account of Cain’s punishment, over the course of time his line, the line of the serpent, continued to perpetuate evil as Lamech, one of his descendants, killed a man who wounded him.[4] As Cain had reacted disproportionately when he killed his brother, Abel, for having followed and then being commended by God, so now his descendant, Lamech, similarly acted disproportionately in killing a man who had merely injured him.

Cain’s rejection of God and monstrous choice to follow in the ways of the serpent meant that the line of the Messiah ended with the death of righteous Abel. Yet because God always keeps his promises, he graced Adam and Eve with another son, Seth, to continue Messiah’s line. As initially stated starting in verse 25 in chapter 4 of Genesis, “Adam made love to his wife again,”—also translated as “Adam knew his wife”—“and she gave birth to a son and named him Seth, saying, ‘God has granted me another child in place of Abel, since Cain killed him.’” Yet as we see in the transition to chapter 5, Seth’s birth wasn’t immediate. As stated in verse 3, it wasn’t until Adam was 130 years old that his third son was born. God is far more patient in keeping his promises than we are in receiving them, isn’t he? And that Seth became part of Messiah’s line is made clear in the third chapter of Luke’s Gospel which records Jesus’ genealogy beginning with, “23 Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli.” And Jesus’ genealogy ends with “38 the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.”[5] Thus we see that the Messiah’s line was preserved through Seth.

Now at the end of Genesis 4, after noting that “Seth also had a son, and he named him Enosh,” we find this curious statement, “At that time people began to call on the name of the Lord.” Whereas prior to the time of the Fall, humanity’s relationship and fellowship with their Maker had been unbroken, even this early on in human history those from Seth’s Messianic line had need of calling upon God, of beckoning his name—something that no one from Cain’s evil line is recorded as having done. Yet humans, having been created in the image of God, were created to depend upon God, to call upon the name of the LORD. Another possible translation is that “people began to proclaim the name of the LORD.” In this case it would suggest that the reason for this need was because the serpent’s work was not yet done. As he would continue to seek to multiply his followers through the line of Cain, those who followed the LORD God through the line of Seth would need to reach out to them, proclaiming the goodness and greatness of God and the possibility of forgiveness of their sin by him even as followers of Christ Jesus, the promised Messiah’s line, continue to do today. In returning to 2 Corinthians 4 this morning, we were reminded yet again that the proclamation of the Gospel is necessary because from the beginning Satan, the devil, “[t] he god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel that displays the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.”[6] This is why at the time of Seth continuing to now people have needed to call on and proclaim the name of the LORD.

Now chapter 5 of Genesis provides both a reaffirmation of humanity’s beginnings as well as a selective presentation of Messiah’s lineage. Verses 1 and 2 essentially restate Genesis 1:27: “1 This is the written account of Adam’s family line. When God created mankind, he made them in the likeness of God. He created them male and female and blessed them. And he named them ‘Mankind’”—or “Adam”—“when they were created.”[7] Despite the disobedience of “Mankind,” both male and female, God’s blessing wasn’t withdrawn but instead was affirmed in this post-Fall presentation of Adam’s genealogy. Regarding this genealogy, Old Testament scholar Carol Kaminski notes, “It is a linear genealogy, meaning that only one son in each generation is named. Accordingly, even though Adam and Eve have three sons (and other sons and daughters, Gen. 5:4[8]), only Seth’s name is given in the genealogy (Gen. 5:3[9]). The genealogy lists ten generations, establishing an unbroken genealogical line from Adam to Noah, who is the tenth member.”[10] In other words, in this initial genealogy we see [count out loud]:

  1. God created Adam in the first generation (verses 1–2);[11]
  2. then Seth was born to Adam (verse 3);[12]
  3. then Enosh was born to Seth (verse 6);[13]
  4. then Kenan was born to Enosh (verse 9);[14]
  5. then Mahalalel was born to Kenan (verse 13);[15]
  6. then Jared was born to Mahalalel (verse 15);[16]
  7. then Enoch was born to Jared (verse 18);[17]
  8. then Methuselah was born to Enoch (verse 21);[18]
  9. then Lamech was born to Methuselah—obviously not the same Lamech who was Cain’s descendant[19] (verse 25);[20]
  10. then Noah was born to Lamech (verses 28–29a);[21]

In addition to being selective, the genealogy is formulaic in that it states how long people lived after they had their son and also comments upon other unnamed sons and daughters they may have had whose names are not recorded since they aren’t part of Messiah’s line. Hence, we read in verses 3–5: “When Adam had lived 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, in his own image; and he named him Seth. After Seth was born, Adam lived 800 years and had other sons and daughters. Altogether, Adam lived a total of 930 years, and then he died.” In other words, we again see an editorial hand in what God has chosen to reveal in his Word. For what he has chosen to reveal, and what he will continue to focus upon, is the yet–to–come and promised Messiah who will one day crush the serpent’s head and thereby destroy all evil and sin.

Returning to the opening verses in chapter 5, again as the LORD God created mankind in his own image—as also stated in Genesis 1:27—and in his own likeness—as stated in verse 1 of this chapter, so, too, we see in verse 3 that Adam’s third child was similarly, “in his own likeness, in his own image.” Now what immediately comes to mind in reading this is how children often physically look like their parents. I know that as I’ve looked back at photos of my own mother, I realize that I could pass as her sister when we were similar ages. What is more, I once observed how an image and likeness can be passed along to adopted children as well. Years ago, I commented to a boss how much a photo of his son he had hanging in his office looked like him. He smiled back at me and said, “Thank you. He’s adopted.” I was dumbfounded. Despite being adopted there was no denying the physical resemblance between father and son.

However, given that God is Spirit,[22] I believe that the way in which Adam and Eve bore God’s image was by reflecting his goodness in their spirit or soul. As we’ve previously noted,[23] that God’s image and likeness was reflected in Adam and Eve is indicated in the fact that he made them “good.” For God who is goodness itself[24] was only capable of creating a creation that was similarly good in every way.[25] Yet when Adam sinned, when he disobeyed God by partaking from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the good image in which God had made him was damaged. And this sullied image was now part of the “likeness and image” of Adam found in Seth. For as the representative head of all humanity, Adam passed along to Seth—and to all humanity that followed—his fallen nature. As the apostle Paul teaches, “sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all people, because all sinned.”[26] Therefore “death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who is a pattern of the one to come.”[27]

Indeed, as the select chronology in Genesis 5 continues, we see that in each case, each person stated experienced the result of Adam’s disobedience in that they died:

Adam died after 930 years;[28]

Seth died after 912 years;[29]

Enosh died after 905 years;[30]

Kenan died after 910 years;[31]

Mahalalel died after 895 years;[32]

Jared died after 852 years.[33]

All of these deaths are stark reminders of God’s promised judgment of certain death falling upon Adam should he transgress God’s command not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil in the Garden.[34] Because Adam partook of this fruit, to Adam and his descendants, death certainly came.

Now before going on I want to comment briefly upon the lengthy lives of each of those mentioned. Are these literal or figurative numbers? Scholars have argued for both. Those in favor of the figurative note that some of the numbers seem to have a symbolic significance. For example, Enoch’s 365 years in verse 23 is the same as the 365 days that exist in a year. Therefore, this may indicate that he lived full life. Similarly, Lamech’s 777 years in verse 31 may indicate completeness, 7 being the number of completeness in Scripture.[35] However, this figurative interpretation doesn’t account for the many other ages listed that don’t provide any symbolic significance. Additionally, the ages listed all differ from one another, suggesting that they’re actual. For it’s possible that at this early stage in human existence people were granted lengthy lives in order that the creation mandate to be fruitful, increase, and fill the earth might be fulfilled.[36] Too, as one commentator argues, “The traditional understanding is that the numbers should be taken at face value, often assuming that something changed in the cosmology of the earth or in the physiology of humans (or in both) after the flood, resulting in a rapid decline in longevity, finally stabilizing at a ‘normal’ life span in the range of 70 years or 80 years….”[37] I, for my part, agree with this traditional understanding.[38]

Returning to the genealogy, I want to pause upon Enoch for as verse 22 states concerning him, “Enoch walked faithfully with God 300 years.” And verse 24 reiterates, “Enoch walked faithfully with God;…” Now the real shocker is what is stated at the end of verse 24, for after living a total of 365 years, unlike the others listed in the genealogy Enoch didn’t die. Instead the text says, “then he was no more, because God took him away.” Enoch is only one of two people named in Scripture who are said to escape death. The other is the prophet Elijah. As recorded in 2 Kings, as Elijah and Elisha “were walking along and talking together, suddenly a chariot of fire and horses of fire appeared and separated the two of them, and Elijah went up to heaven in a whirlwind.”[39] The theological term for conveying someone who is still alive to heaven is “translate.” Both Enoch and Elijah were translated from earth to heaven. As to Elijah, there’s much we’re told about him in Scripture. As we’ve noted before,[40] he is arguably the most important prophet in the Old Testament and he even appears in the New Testament, along with Moses, at Jesus’ transfiguration.[41]

Yet in the case of Enoch, the only thing we’re told about him—twice—is that he walked faithfully with God. Referring to these verses Hebrews 11, the hall of faith chapter, states, “By faith Enoch was taken from this life, so that he did not experience death: ‘He could not be found, because God had taken him away.’ For before he was taken, he was commended as one who pleased God. And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who earnestly seek him.” It’s reasonable to assume, then, that by believing in and earnestly seeking after God, Enoch walked in the image and likeness of his LORD.[42]

To this end, I love Carol Kaminski’s observation about Enoch in her Casket Empty book. After noting, as we did earlier, that everyone in Adam’s genealogy dies, she states,

It is important to observe, however, that one person is exempt, namely, Enoch, who walks with God (Gen. 5:22–24), so he did not face death. Although not fully explained, this gives us a word of hope that walking with God is the solution to death…. Enoch’s escape from death points us in the direction of the living God, who alone has power to overcome death. In a mysterious way, walking with the Creator God is a journey toward life.[43]

Isn’t that awesome??!! If we live the way our gracious, almighty LORD created us to live, we have the hope of escaping and overcoming death. Enoch didn’t merely live. He walked with God throughout his life. To walk with God means that we live with God in both this life and the next. As Jesus similarly taught, because God is a living God, he gives his life to all who are his. For the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is not the God of the dead but of the living. Therefore, all who are his live unto him.[44]

Next in line after deathless Enoch came Methuselah who lived an incredible 969 years before he died. Having lived so many years, he probably died in the year of the flood.[45] Next was Lamech—again, obviously not the same Lamech found in Cain’s line—who was the father of Noah. As we know, and as we’ll see next time we return to Genesis, when the human race had completely and utterly turned against God by choosing to act according to its evil thoughts and heart, of all who were living at the time, only Noah “found favor in the eyes of the LORD.”[46] Only he, as stated in verse 29, was able to “comfort us in the labor and painful toil of our hands caused by the ground the Lord has cursed.”

Well, what can we learn from this brief genealogy? I think the most important lesson we learn is that we were made by the LORD God to walk in his image and likeness. The problem, however, is that Adam’s disobedience made this imaging far more difficult for the Fall resulted in our imaging Adam and Eve in our propensity to disobey God and in our vulnerability to being deceived by both the enemy and ourselves—rather than our imaging God as he intended. This is why God placed enmity, hostile opposition, between the woman’s seed and that of the serpent. And, again, that enmity came in the form of Messiah, the Christ, the eternal Son of God who in agreement with the Father and Holy Spirit determined, before the foundation of the world,[47] to come to earth in human form so that he might save us from the effects of the Fall and from our ancient enemy, the serpent.

Now if Adam as our head represents the Old Covenant that required regular sacrifices to atone, to make amends or reparation, for our sins, Jesus Christ as our head represents the New Covenant[48] for he gave himself as the ultimate and final sacrifice to atone, to make amends or reparation for, the sins of all who believe in and receive him as their Savior. Paul puts it this way in Romans 5:

15 But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many! 16 Nor can the gift of God be compared with the result of one man’s sin: The judgment followed one sin and brought condemnation, but the gift followed many trespasses and brought justification. 17 For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ! 18 Consequently, just as one trespass resulted in condemnation for all people, so also one righteous act resulted in justification and life for all people. 19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.[49]

Therefore, in Jesus Christ and in him alone can we find hope. For though we have been made in the image of God, as stated at the end of the 2 Corinthians 4:14, Christ is the image of God. So, too, does Paul teach in the passage from Colossians read earlier:

15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy.[50]

Christ came as the image of God incarnate, as the image of God in the flesh, in order that he, being God, might restore in us the godly image from which we fell. As the passage from Colossians continues, “19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.” The cross, the death of the Son of God, the blood shed by Christ Jesus, is how fallen humanity can be reconciled to God. For he who made the world and continues to sustain the world he made, died for his disobedient—and sinless—and hopeless image-bearers in order that they might be forgiven and enabled to become obedient—and holy—and full of hope as God created us to be. Christ Jesus, Messiah Jesus, died for sinful humanity in order that we might live the pure lives he intended. As stated by the author of Hebrews from the final New Testament passage read earlier, “The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven.”[51]

Dear brothers and sisters, it is by—and because of—and through Jesus Christ alone, the last Adam, that you and I can be remade into the beautiful, living, eternal godly image from which we fell by—and because of—and through the first Adam in the Garden. Like Enoch, we were made not merely to live our earthly lives. No, we were made to walk with God. We were made to walk with him by faith this side of heaven as he restores the broken image and likeness from which we fell; and we were made to walk with him by sight when, having restored our broken image and likeness into the radiant image of his Son, he takes all who are his to be with him, to walk with him forevermore, for all eternity, in heaven. Let us, then ever call upon and proclaim the name of our gracious and merciful and kind LORD.

Let us pray.

[1] See sermon preached on 01/26/20, God’s Compassionate Judgment on Genesis 3:14–24.

[2] Hebrews 11:4: By faith Abel brought God a better offering than Cain did. By faith he was commended as righteous, when God spoke well of his offerings. And by faith Abel still speaks, even though he is dead.

[3] 1 John 3:12: Do not be like Cain, who belonged to the evil one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his own actions were evil and his brother’s were righteous.

[4] Genesis 4:23: Lamech said to his wives, “Adah and Zillah, listen to me; wives of Lamech, hear my words. I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for injuring me.”

[5] Luke 3:23, 38.

[6] 2 Corinthians 4:14.

[7] Genesis 1:27: So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them [or “him”]; male and female he created them.

[8] Genesis 5:4: After Seth was born, Adam lived 800 years and had other sons and daughters.

[9] Genesis 5:3: When Adam had lived 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, in his own image; and he named him Seth.

[10] Carol M. Kaminski, Casket Empty: God’s Plan of Redemption through History, Casket Empty Media, 2012, p. 21.

[11] 1 This is the written account of Adam’s family line. When God created mankind, he made them in the likeness of God. He created them male and female and blessed them. And he named them “Mankind”[Hebrew adam] when they were created.

[12] When Adam had lived 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, in his own image; and he named him Seth.

[13] When Seth had lived 105 years, he became the father[Father may mean ancestor; also in verses 7-26.] of Enosh.

[14] When Enosh had lived 90 years, he became the father of Kenan.

[15] When Kenan had lived 70 years, he became the father of Mahalalel.

[16] When Mahalalel had lived 65 years, he became the father of Jared.

[17] When Jared had lived 162 years, he became the father of Enoch.

[18] When Enoch had lived 65 years, he became the father of Methuselah.

[19] Genesis 4:17–18: 17 Cain made love to his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. Cain was then building a city, and he named it after his son Enoch. 18 To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad was the father of Mehujael, and Mehujael was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of Lamech.

[20] When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he became the father of Lamech.

[21] When Lamech had lived 182 years, he had a son. 29 He named him Noah….

[22] John 4:24: God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth.

[23] See sermon preached on January 12, 2020, Why Did God Create Us? on Genesis 1:26–30, 2:7–9.

[24] Psalm 34:8: Taste and see that the Lord is good; blessed is the one who takes refuge in him.; Psalm 107:1: Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good; his love endures forever.; Matthew 19:17: “Why do you ask me about what is good?” Jesus replied. “There is only One who is good. If you want to enter life, keep the commandments.”

[25] Genesis 1:4, 10, 12, 17–18, 21, 25, 31:God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness…. 10 God called the dry ground “land,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good….12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good….17 God set [the greater and lesser lights] in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good….21 So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good….25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good….31 God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.

[26] Romans 5:12.

[27] Romans 5:14.

[28] Genesis 5:5: Altogether, Adam lived a total of 930 years, and then he died.

[29] Genesis 5:8: Altogether, Seth lived a total of 912 years, and then he died.

[30] Genesis 5:11: Altogether, Enosh lived a total of 905 years, and then he died.

[31] Genesis 5:14: Altogether, Kenan lived a total of 910 years, and then he died.

[32] Genesis 5:17: Altogether, Mahalalel lived a total of 895 years, and then he died.

[33] Genesis 5:20: Altogether, Jared lived a total of 962 years, and then he died.

[34] Genesis 2:16: And the Lord God commanded the man, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die.”

[35] Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Genesis 5:5.

[36] Genesis 1:28: God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”

[37] Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Genesis 5:1–32.

[38] See also Genesis 6:1–3 which indicates that a partial reason for the shortening of years of human life was due to the great evil humans had done: 1 When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose. Then the Lord said, “My Spirit will not contend with humans forever, for they are mortal”—or “corrupt”— “their days will be a hundred and twenty years.”

[39] 2 Kings 2:11.

[40] See sermons preached on June 23, 2019 (The Power of a Whisper on 1 Kings 19:1–15a and The Silence of God on June 19, 2016) and June 30, 2019 (How the LORD Answered Elijah’s Prayer on 2 Kings 2:1–18 and Preparing God’s Way on June 26, 2016).

[41] See Matthew 17:3: “Just then there appeared before them Moses and Elijah, talking with Jesus.”; Mark 9:4: “And there appeared before them Elijah and Moses, who were talking with Jesus.”; Luke 9:30: “Two men, Moses and Elijah, appeared in glorious splendor, talking with Jesus.” Peter and John later refer to their having borne witness to this miraculous event respectively in 2 Peter 1:16–18: 16 For we did not follow cleverly devised stories when we told you about the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in power, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 17 He received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” 18 We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain./John 1:14: The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.

[42] Interesting to note is that Enoch is seventh from the chronology recorded for Adam. As the Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Genesis 5:24 observes, “Lamech, the seventh from Adam in the genealogy of Cain, was evil personified. But ‘Enoch, the seventh from Adam’ (Jude 14) in the genealogy of Seth, ‘was commended as one who pleased God’ (Heb 11:5).” The Reformation Study Bible note on Genesis 4:17, 18 similarly observes that whereas Lamech “inflicted death,” Enoch “did not die.” Finally, the Reformation Study Bible note on Genesis 5:3–32 (3rd paragraph) states, “The significant seventh generation of each genealogy marks a high point—the height of wickedness in the Cainite Lamech (4:18–24), and the height of godliness in the Sethite Enoch (vv. 18–24…).” Jude 1:14–16:14 Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about them: ‘See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones 15 to judge everyone, and to convict all of them of all the ungodly acts they have committed in their ungodliness, and of all the defiant words ungodly sinners have spoken against him.’ 16 These people are grumblers and faultfinders; they follow their own evil desires; they boast about themselves and flatter others for their own advantage.” The allusion is to the Jewish Testament of Moses (~1st c. AD).

[43] Ibid., p. 21. Emphases added.

[44] In the account of the hypothetical woman who married a brother, was widowed, and went on to marry the next brother in line after being widowed seven times, the Sadducees—who didn’t believe in the resurrection—nonetheless asked Jesus whose wife she would be at the resurrection. Jesus’ response can be found in Luke 20: 34–38: 34 Jesus replied, “The people of this age marry and are given in marriage. 35 But those who are considered worthy of taking part in the age to come and in the resurrection from the dead will neither marry nor be given in marriage, 36 and they can no longer die; for they are like the angels. They are God’s children, since they are children of the resurrection. 37 But in the account of the burning bush, even Moses showed that the dead rise, for he calls the Lord ‘the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ 38 He is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for to him all are alive.”; Matthew 22:29–32: 29 Jesus replied, “You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God. 30 At the resurrection people will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven. 31 But about the resurrection of the dead—have you not read what God said to you, 32 ‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not the God of the dead but of the living.”; Mark 12:24–27: 24 Jesus replied, “Are you not in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God? 25 When the dead rise, they will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven. 26 Now about the dead rising—have you not read in the Book of Moses, in the account of the burning bush, how God said to him, ‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? 27 He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are badly mistaken!”; All three passages reference Exodus 3:6: Then he said, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.” At this, Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look at God.

[45] As noted in the Zondervan NIV Study Bible note to Genesis 5:27: “If the figures concerning life spans are literal, Methuselah died in the year of the flood (the figures in vv. 25, 28 and 7:6 add up to exactly 969).”

[46] Genesis 6:8.

[47] Ephesians 1:3–4: Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in the heavenly realms with every spiritual blessing in Christ. For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight.

[48] This is what is understood by federal head, the governing systems in the Old and New Testaments (Covenants), respectively.

[49] Romans 5:15–19.

[50] Colossians 1:15–18.

[51] Hebrews 1:3.