We noted last week that beginning with the fourth plague, the swarm of flies, it’s likely that the Israelites were spared being subject to the remaining plagues: With the tenth and final plague as well, the death of the firstborn, the people of the LORD would be spared. However, this time they would have to follow the LORD’s instructions. This time, by their obedience, they would demonstrate their belief in the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob who instituted the Passover celebration.
These instructions begin in Exodus 12. As stated in verses 1–3, “1 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt, 2 ‘This month is to be for you the first month, the first month of your year. 3 Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day of this month each man is to take a lamb for his family, one for each household.’” Right from the get-go we’re alerted as to the momentous nature of what the LORD has said. As one commentator notes, “The events of the plagues and exodus are so significant for Israel’s identity as an emerging nation that the month they come out of Egypt will become for them the first month of the year.” By this the LORD was making clear to the Israelites the import of the events that were about to transpire. And the heart of this commemoration would be the sacrifice of a lamb—the Hebrew word can also mean “kid,” as in a young goat—by each household.
Next, the LORD described the lamb or kid to be chosen—recall how Moses had told Pharaoh that they wouldn’t know what to sacrifice until the LORD provided them instruction. That instruction is stated in verse 5: “The animals you choose must be year-old males without defect, and you may take them from the sheep or the goats.” As Abel offered the LORD the “fat portions from some of the firstborn of his flock,” so, too, here only the best animals, “year-old males without defect” were to be brought as an offering. This stipulation would be a lasting one.
Having indicated the type of offering to be made, the LORD described when and how this sacrifice was to be offered. The “when” is stated in verse 6: “Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month, when all the members of the community of Israel must slaughter them at twilight.” The “how” is provided in verses 7–11:
First, they were “to take some of the blood and put it on the sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the lambs” (verse 7). Hundreds of years later the author of Hebrews well-understood the significance of this blood as he noted, “the law requires that nearly everything be cleansed with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.” As one commentator notes, blood “symbolizes a sacrifice offered as a substitute, one life laid down for another.” Another similarly states that the Israelites “would find the blood of the slain lamb to be a vivid reminder that life had to be sacrificed in place of those in the home”;
Next, “that same night” they were “to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast” (verse 8) and they were further told, “Do not eat the meat raw or boiled in water, but roast it over a fire—with the head, legs and internal organs” (verse 9);
There were to be no leftovers: “Do not leave any of it till morning; if some is left till morning, you must burn it” (verse 10);
And last, they were to eat this meal in haste, “with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand” for “it is the Lord’s Passover.”
The reason why this observance came to be known as “Passover” is first stated in verses 12–13: “12 On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn of both people and animals, and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt. I am the Lord. 13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.” As one commentator observes, “the sign of blood was a pledge of God’s mercy” upon his people. Conversely, for disregarding and disobeying the LORD, God would “strike down every firstborn of both people and animals” and “bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt.” Whereas previously we’ve noted ways in which some of the Egyptian gods could be linked to a particular plague, now, as noted by one scholar, all the gods of Egypt would be judged in that “(1) They would be shown to be powerless to deliver from the impending slaughter, and (2) many animals sacred to the gods would be killed.” As stated by another, “The events of the Passover are the ultimate demonstration of God’s holy judgment of Egypt in its stubborn rejection of Yahweh, of God’s great love for his people Israel, and of his power that is infinitely greater than all the power of Pharaoh and his kingdom.” Passover would become as formative for Israel’s identity as the fact that the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had created them from one man, their father Abraham. Consequently, as stated in verse 14, the LORD would require that, “for the generations to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord—a lasting ordinance.”
Further requirements for this celebration are then specified. These focus not on the animal sacrifice but on the bread to be used for the Festival (or Feast) of Unleavened Bread that began with the Passover meal and continued for seven days. Once the people of Israel arrived in the Promised Land, this feast would remind them of how the LORD in his mercy had passed over their homes and brought them out of Egypt. The requirements for the bread to be used begin in verse 15, “For seven days you are to eat bread made without yeast. On the first day remove the yeast from your houses, for whoever eats anything with yeast in it from the first day through the seventh must be cut off from Israel.” What is more, verse 16, “On the first day hold a sacred assembly, and another one on the seventh day. Do no work at all on these days, except to prepare food for everyone to eat; that is all you may do.” The name of—and reason for—this celebration is then stated in verse 17: “Celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.” As stated in verse 18, during the longer Feast of Unleavened Bread, they were “to eat bread made without yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day.” As emphasized in verses 19–20, “19 For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And anyone, whether foreigner or native-born, who eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the community of Israel. 20 Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must eat unleavened bread.” The bread was to be unleavened not only because the Israelites were to leave in haste—and it takes time for yeast to rise—but also, as noted by one scholar, “Yeast (or leaven) as a product of the previous year’s harvest was regarded as a symbol of corruption. [Therefore] No Israelite sacrifice contained leaven.”
Moses then passed along the instructions he had received from the LORD to “all the elders of Israel” saying to them, beginning with verse 21,
Go at once and select the animals for your families and slaughter the Passover lamb. 22 Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it into the blood in the basin and put some of the blood on the top and on both sides of the doorframe. None of you shall go out of the door of your house until morning. 23 When the Lord goes through the land to strike down the Egyptians, he will see the blood on the top and sides of the doorframe and will pass over that doorway, and he will not permit the destroyer to enter your houses and strike you down.
Moses then explained to them the ongoing nature and significance of the Passover. As recorded beginning with verse 24, “24 Obey these instructions as a lasting ordinance for you and your descendants. 25 When you enter the land that the Lord will give you as he promised, observe this ceremony. 26 And when your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 27 then tell them, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice to the Lord, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.’” The people’s response to these instructions and explanation delineating God’s mercy in instituting this Passover feast is found in verses 27 and 28. Stated simply and profoundly, “Then the people bowed down and worshiped. 28 The Israelites did just what the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron.” To bow down, worship, and obey God is the appropriate response to such a poignant expression of his compassion and provision.
Tragically, Pharaoh and the Egyptians yet again neglected to heed God’s warning. Therefore, as occurred with the previous nine plagues, they were subjected to the tenth and most terrible plague of all. As recorded in verses 29–30, “29 At midnight the Lord struck down all the firstborn in Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on the throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner, who was in the dungeon, and the firstborn of all the livestock as well. 30 Pharaoh and all his officials and all the Egyptians got up during the night, and there was loud wailing in Egypt, for there was not a house without someone dead.” Once again, this was such a devastating—and unnecessary—price to pay for disbelief in and disobedience to the LORD. It’s a crushing reminder of how difficult it can be to change a person’s heart. If ten horrific plagues were unable to soften a hardened heart, who then can be saved? The only answer is the one given by Jesus when asked the same question by his disciples concerning the difficulty of the rich to enter the kingdom of God—keep in mind that Pharaoh, too, was rich: Namely, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.” Therefore, we must never give up hope for those whose hearts are hard.
Well, that the Israelites continued this Passover observance long after it was instituted is evident as we turn to our New Testament passage in which Jesus and his disciples are celebrating a Passover meal together just before he was betrayed by Judas and handed over to be crucified. We’re going to focus on Matthew’s account of this meal which provides the basis for this morning’s communion celebration of the Lord’s Supper.
The pairing of the institution of the Lord’s Supper with the Old Testament institution of Passover is a natural one for, as noted by one scholar, “The Lord’s Supper demonstrates the essential continuity between the old and the new covenants by revealing that the true meaning of the Passover lies in the deliverance effected by Jesus’ death.” The words of the institution are simple, mysterious, and profound. We’re provided with four details:
- First, as stated in verse 26 of Matthew 26, “While [Jesus and his disciples] were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, ‘Take and eat; this is my body.’” The meal begins with Jesus giving thanks—which in the Greek is “eucharisteo,” the origin of our English word “Eucharist.”
- Second, as stated in verses 27–28, Jesus “took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, ‘Drink from it, all of you.28 This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.’” The cup represents blood—the death of Jesus, and God’s judgment—he poured out his life. This was prophesied by Isaiah hundreds of years prior to Christ’s coming to earth as he declared, “he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.”
- Third, these actions and words are followed by Jesus declaring, verse 29, “I tell you, I will not drink from this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” This new kingdom will take place when Christ returns and celebrates the messianic banquet with those who are his. What is more, in stating these words, as noted by one commentator, “Jesus expresses His faith in God who will not abandon Him in death.” Another similarly observes, “Jesus is confident that his impending death does not jeopardize his celebration…in the future kingdom of God.”
- Last, as stated in verse 30, “When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.”
Now since Jesus was physically present as he uttered these words of institution, it’s evident that the elements—the bread and the wine—are intended to represent his body and blood. But they’re not just symbols. For, as recorded in The Heidelberg Catechism,
Christ has commanded me…to eat of this broken bread and to drink of this cup in memory of Him, and therewith has given assurance: first, that His body was…broken on the cross for me, and His blood shed for me, as sure as I see with my eyes the bread…broken for me and the cup communicated to me; and, further, that with His crucified body and shed blood He Himself feeds and nourishes my soul to eternal life, as sure as I take and taste the bread and cup…which are given me as sure tokens of the body and blood of Christ.”
Concerning these “sure tokens of the body and blood of Christ,” it’s worth remembering that prior to this night, Jesus declared concerning himself:
I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never go hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty…. 37 All those the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never drive away. 38 For I have come down from heaven not to do my will but to do the will of him who sent me. 39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I shall lose none of all those he has given me, but raise them up at the last day. 40 For my Father’s will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day…. 54 Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day. 
Like the bread of Passover that was to be unleavened since yeast was regarded as a symbol of corruption, so Jesus Christ, who was tempted as we are yet without sin, was unleavened, uncorrupted, and pure. As one who is fully human and fully God, he will raise up all who believe in and receive him.
Let us now consider some of the ways that the institution of the Old Testament Passover finds its fulfillment in the New Testament institution of the Lord’s Supper:
In the Old Testament, the LORD provided specific instructions as to how the Passover was to be celebrated; in the New Testament, the Lord Jesus provided specific instructions as to how the Lord’s Supper was to be celebrated;
In the Old Testament, the LORD made clear that the lamb to be sacrificed was to be without defect; in the New Testament, Peter says concerning Jesus that he is “a lamb without blemish or defect”;
In the Old Testament, the lamb that is sacrificed is a substitute. Its blood, its life, is sacrificed in exchange for human life; in the New Testament, Paul declares, “For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed.” The life of Jesus is accepted by the Father as a substitute, in exchange for, the lives of sinful humanity. This is the reason animal sacrifices are no longer needed. In both cases, the sacrifice is a pledge of God’s mercy upon those who partake of the lamb/Lamb, respectively;
In the Old Testament, God’s wrath passes over only those who are marked by the sacrifice of the lamb; in the New Testament, God’s wrath passes over only those who are marked by the sacrifice of the Lamb, his Son;
In the Old Testament, all false gods are judged and rejected for they are powerless to deliver those who reject the LORD; in the New Testament, all false gods are similarly judged and rejected for they, too, are powerless to deliver those who reject the Son, the only way the Father has provided to himself;
In the Old Testament, all who are marked by the blood of the lamb are delivered from Egypt, their enemy and oppressor; in the New Testament, all who are marked by the blood of the Lamb, Jesus Christ, are delivered from the enemies of sin that so easily ensnares us, death, and the devil and only those who profess faith in him should partake of the Supper he provides;
In the Old Testament, in response to the Lord’s instructions and merciful provision, his people obeyed, bowed down, and worshiped him; in the New Testament, in response to the Lord Jesus’ instructions and merciful provision, people obeyed, bowed down, and worshiped him recognizing that he is not only a good, moral man but is also God in the flesh, their Savior and LORD;
In the Old Testament, all who were present were to explain to their children what the Passover ceremony meant to them; in the New Testament, the institution and ongoing celebration of the Lord’s Supper explains to us, children of our heavenly Father, that Christ Jesus’ sacrifice is the only way God has provided to spare us from God’s wrath and deliver us from sin, death, and the devil in order that we might be united to our merciful Father and Son by the Holy Spirit he sends to seal and indwell us now and forevermore. As John the Baptist, whose entire mission in life was to prepare the way of the LORD, declared upon seeing Jesus coming toward him, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!”
Dear brothers and sisters, all of this is what we celebrate when we partake of the Lord’s Supper each month. For the God who gave us the Old and New Testament Scriptures by his people is the same God who gave us his Son. He is the same God who has given us his Spirit. He is the same God who will never let go of—or lose—or leave—or forsake any who are his. Let us close this portion of our time of worship by heeding the words of the Apostle Peter who wrote:
18 For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your ancestors, 19 but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. 20 He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake. 21 Through him you believe in God, who raised him from the dead and glorified him, and so your faith and hope are in God.
Let us pray.
 Exodus 8:22–23: Concerning the flies, the LORD had said, “22 But on that day I will deal differently with the land of Goshen, where my people live; no swarms of flies will be there, so that you will know that I, the Lord, am in this land. 23 I will make a distinction between my people and your people….”; Exodus 9:4: Similarly, concerning the livestock: “But the Lord will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and that of Egypt, so that no animal belonging to the Israelites will die.”; Exodus 9:26: Also the hailstorm: “The only place it did not hail was the land of Goshen, where the Israelites were.”; Exodus 10:23: And the darkness, “No one could see anyone else or move about for three days. Yet all the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.”
 Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:2 (emphasis added).
 Verse 4 indicates what smaller households were to do—essentially find their nearest neighbor with whom to share the lamb. Exodus 12:4: If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they must share one with their nearest neighbor, having taken into account the number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of lamb needed in accordance with what each person will eat.
 Exodus 11:24–26: 24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, worship the Lord. Even your women and children may go with you; only leave your flocks and herds behind.” 25 But Moses said, “You must allow us to have sacrifices and burnt offerings to present to the Lord our God. 26 Our livestock too must go with us; not a hoof is to be left behind. We have to use some of them in worshiping the Lord our God, and until we get there we will not know what we are to use to worship the Lord.”
 Genesis 4:4.
 See Leviticus 1:1–3: 1 The Lord called to Moses and spoke to him from the tent of meeting. He said, 2 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When anyone among you brings an offering to the Lord, bring as your offering an animal from either the herd or the flock. 3 If the offering is a burnt offering from the herd, you are to offer a male without defect. You must present it at the entrance to the tent of meeting so that it will be acceptable to the Lord.
Leviticus 22:17–25: 17 The Lord said to Moses, 18 “Speak to Aaron and his sons and to all the Israelites and say to them: ‘If any of you—whether an Israelite or a foreigner residing in Israel—presents a gift for a burnt offering to the Lord, either to fulfill a vow or as a freewill offering, 19 you must present a male without defect from the cattle, sheep or goats in order that it may be accepted on your behalf. 20 Do not bring anything with a defect, because it will not be accepted on your behalf. 21 When anyone brings from the herd or flock a fellowship offering to the Lord to fulfill a special vow or as a freewill offering, it must be without defect or blemish to be acceptable. 22 Do not offer to the Lord the blind, the injured or the maimed, or anything with warts or festering or running sores. Do not place any of these on the altar as a food offering presented to the Lord. 23 You may, however, present as a freewill offering an ox or a sheep that is deformed or stunted, but it will not be accepted in fulfillment of a vow. 24 You must not offer to the Lord an animal whose testicles are bruised, crushed, torn or cut. You must not do this in your own land, 25 and you must not accept such animals from the hand of a foreigner and offer them as the food of your God. They will not be accepted on your behalf, because they are deformed and have defects.’”
 Hebrews 9:22.
 Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:7. It refers to Genesis 9:4–6 when Noah and his family are permitted to eat animals upon being given the creation mandate first given to Adam and Eve whose original mandate didn’t include animals. [Compare with Genesis 1: 29–30: 29 Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30 And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in the sky and all the creatures that move along the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food.” And it was so.; Genesis 9:4–6: 4 “But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it. 5 And for your lifeblood I will surely demand an accounting. I will demand an accounting from every animal. And from each human being, too, I will demand an accounting for the life of another human being. 6 Whoever sheds human blood, by humans shall their blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made mankind.] and Leviticus 17:10–12 (verse 11): 10 “‘I will set my face against any Israelite or any foreigner residing among them who eats blood, and I will cut them off from the people. 11 For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one’s life. 12 Therefore I say to the Israelites, “None of you may eat blood, nor may any foreigner residing among you eat blood.”.
 Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:7.
 Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:13.
 Reformation ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 7:19: “All the natural waters of Egypt were involved, including the arms of the Nile, the irrigation canals, and the pools formed by river flooding. The Nile River, the source of Egypt’s agricultural life, was revered as a god. Beginning with this plague the Lord’s superiority over the Egyptian pantheon of gods is demonstrated.” The Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Exodus 7:20 similarly observes, “Egypt’s dependence on the life-sustaining waters of the Nile led to its deification as the god Hapi.”; Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Exodus 8:2. “The frog (or toad) was deified in the goddess Heqt, who assisted women in childbirth.” Reformation ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 8:3 similarly states, “Frogs represented the primoridial goddess Heket in Egyptian religious life.”; Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Exodus 9:3: The Egyptians worshiped many animals and animal-head deities, including the bull-gods Apis and Mnevis, the cow-god Hathor and the ram-god Khnum. Thus Egyptian religion is again rebuked and ridiculed.; Reformation ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 10:22: The Egyptians typically celebrated the morning light when the sun god Ra was thought to overcome the dreaded serpent of hostile chaos and darkness. This supernatural darkness was further demonstration of the Lord’s superiority over the Egyptian pantheon.
 Zondervan NIV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:12. The Reformation ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:12 similarly states, “The death of firstborn humans and animals also constituted judgment on the Egyptian pantheon in that many of the sacred animals (which symbolized the gods) were killed. Furthermore, the impotence of Egypt’s deities to protect the land’s inhabitants was vividly demonstrated to all.”
 Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:12.
 See Genesis 12:1–3: 1 The Lord had said to Abram, “Go from your country, your people and your father’s household to the land I will show you. 2 I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. 3 I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.”
 Mark 14:1a: Now the Passover and the Festival of Unleavened Bread were only two days away,…. Luke 22:1, 7: 1 Now the Festival of Unleavened Bread, called the Passover, was approaching,… 7 Then came the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed.
 Reformation ESV Study Bible note on Exodus 12:15.
 Matthew 19:23–26: 23 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “Truly I tell you, it is hard for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of heaven. 24 Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God.” 25 When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astonished and asked, “Who then can be saved?” 26 Jesus looked at them and said, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.”; See also Luke 18:23–27: 23 When he heard this, he became very sad, because he was very wealthy. 24 Jesus looked at him and said, “How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God! 25 Indeed, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God.” 26 Those who heard this asked, “Who then can be saved?” 27 Jesus replied, “What is impossible with man is possible with God.”
 Matthew 26:1–2: 1 When Jesus had finished saying all these things, he said to his disciples, 2 “As you know, the Passover is two days away—and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified….” See also Mark 14:1–2: 1 Now the Passover and the Festival of Unleavened Bread were only two days away, and the chief priests and the teachers of the law were scheming to arrest Jesus secretly and kill him. 2 “But not during the festival,” they said, “or the people may riot….” Luke 22:1–2: 1 Now the Festival of Unleavened Bread, called the Passover, was approaching, 2 and the chief priests and the teachers of the law were looking for some way to get rid of Jesus, for they were afraid of the people….
 See also Mark 14:22–26: 22 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take it; this is my body.” 23 Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 24 “This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many,” he said to them. 25 “Truly I tell you, I will not drink again from the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.” 26 When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.; Luke 22:14–20: 14 When the hour came, Jesus and his apostles reclined at the table. 15 And he said to them, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God.” 17 After taking the cup, he gave thanks and said, “Take this and divide it among you. 18 For I tell you I will not drink again from the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 19 And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.” 20 In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you; 1 Corinthians 11:23–26: 23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.” 25 In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 26 For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.
 Reformation ESV Study Bible note on Matthew 26:26–29.
 εὐχαριστέω— to thank, give thanks, render gratitude; this can mean words that express gratitude or the emotion of gratitude. https://www.billmounce.com/greek-dictionary/eucharisteo
 Isiah 53:12b.
 Reformation ESV Study Bible note on Mark 14:25.
 Crossway ESV Study Bible note on Mark 14:25.
 The Heidelberg Catechism, answer to Question 75. “Q. How does the holy supper remind and assure you that you share in Christ’s one sacrifice on the cross and in all his benefits? A.In this way: Christ has commanded me and all believers to eat this broken bread and to drink this cup in remembrance of him. With this command come these promises: First, as surely as I see with my eyes the bread of the Lord broken for me and the cup shared with me, so surely his body was offered and broken for me and his blood poured out for me on the cross. Second, as surely as I receive from the hand of the one who serves, and taste with my mouth the bread and cup of the Lord, given me as sure signs of Christ’s body and blood, so surely he nourishes and refreshes my soul for eternal life with his crucified body and poured-out blood.” Passages referenced for this belief are Matthew 26:26–28 (26 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take and eat; this is my body.” 27 Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you. 28 This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.); Mark 14:22–24 (22 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take it; this is my body.” 23 Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 24 “This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many,” he said to them.) Luke 22:19–20 (19 And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.” 20 In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.) and 1 Corinthians 11:23–25 (23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.” 25 In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.”).
 John 6:35, 37–40, 54.
 Hebrews 4:15: For we do not have a high priest who is unable to empathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are—yet he did not sin.
 1 Peter 1:19. As a lamb without defect, Jesus Christ is able to cleanse those who are his: 1 John 1:7: “But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus, his Son, purifies us from all sin.” See also Revelation 5:6a: Then I saw a Lamb, looking as if it had been slain, standing at the center of the throne, encircled by the four living creatures and the elders.
 1 Corinthians 5:6–8 (verse 7): 6 Your boasting is not good. Don’t you know that a little yeast leavens the whole batch of dough? 7 Get rid of the old yeast, so that you may be a new unleavened batch—as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. 8 Therefore let us keep the Festival, not with the old bread leavened with malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
 As stated in Hebrews 7:27: Unlike the other high priests, he does not need to offer sacrifices day after day, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people. He sacrificed for their sins once for all when he offered himself.
 John 14:6: Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
 Hebrews 12:1: Therefore, since we are surrounded by such a great cloud of witnesses, let us throw off everything that hinders and the sin that so easily entangles.
 Ephesians 1:13–14: 13 And you also were included in Christ when you heard the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation. When you believed, you were marked in him with a seal, the promised Holy Spirit, 14 who is a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance until the redemption of those who are God’s possession—to the praise of his glory.; 2 Corinthians 1:21–22: 21 Now it is God who makes both us and you stand firm in Christ. He anointed us, 22 set his seal of ownership on us, and put his Spirit in our hearts as a deposit, guaranteeing what is to come.
 1 Corinthians 6:19–20: 19 Do you not know that your bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; 20 you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your bodies.; 2 Timothy 1:14: Guard the good deposit that was entrusted to you—guard it with the help of the Holy Spirit who lives in us.
 John 1:29–36 (see verses 29, 36): 29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 30 This is the one I meant when I said, ‘A man who comes after me has surpassed me because he was before me.’ 31 I myself did not know him, but the reason I came baptizing with water was that he might be revealed to Israel.” 32 Then John gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on him. 33 And I myself did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is the one who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’ 34 I have seen and I testify that this is God’s Chosen One.” 35 The next day John was there again with two of his disciples. 36 When he saw Jesus passing by, he said, “Look, the Lamb of God!”
 John 17:2: For you granted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him.
 John 17:12: While I was with them, I protected them and kept them safe by that name you gave me. None has been lost except the one doomed to destruction so that Scripture would be fulfilled.
 Matthew 28:20b: And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.
 Hebrews 13:5–6: 5 Keep your lives free from the love of money and be content with what you have, because God has said, “Never will I leave you; never will I forsake you.”[Deuteronomy 31:6] 6 So we say with confidence, “The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid. What can mere mortals do to me?”[Psalm 118:6,7] Deuteronomy 31:6, 8: Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you…. 8 The Lord himself goes before you and will be with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you. Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged.” Psalm 118:6,7: 6 The Lord is with me; I will not be afraid. What can mere mortals do to me? 7 The Lord is with me; he is my helper. I look in triumph on my enemies.
 1 Peter 1:18–21.