A Lesson from David on Loving Your Enemy

A Lesson from David on Loving Your Enemy

Last week we had our first glimpse into the heart of David, a man who was chosen by the LORD to be king because of his heart. As we’ve noted, when Samuel thought that Eliab, Jesse’s eldest son, would surely be king, God said to him, “The Lord does not look at the things people look at. People look at the outward appearance, but the Lord looks at the heart.”[1] And the first thing we saw in looking at David’s heart was that he viewed his life through the eyes of providence, acknowledging that even his ability to kill lions and bears as he protected his father’s sheep was possible only by God’s empowering. This confidence and trust in God was the basis of David’s offering himself up to fight Goliath, the uncircumcised Philistine who threatened the nation of Israel. In David’s own words, “The Lord who rescued me from the paw of the lion and the paw of the bear will rescue me from the hand of this Philistine.”[2] David understood that God was his Savior, God is the one who rescues us in our time of need.

Well this week we’re going to see another part of David’s heart: his ability to love—to be loyal and faithful to—his enemy. By definition an enemy is “a person who is actively opposed or hostile to someone or something.” Sadly, king Saul’s treatment of David fulfilled this definition for as David’s reputation increased and Saul’s decreased, he became more and more determined to destroy David. So although our passage this morning addresses David’s response upon learning about the deaths of Saul and Jonathan, a dear friend and brother to David, to fully appreciate this lament, I’m going to highlight some of the events that took place between David and Saul in the interim.

Saul first became acquainted with David when he sought respite from torment by an evil or harmful spirit after the Spirit of the LORD had departed from him[3] due to his repeated disobedience. His attendants suggested he find someone to play the lyre for him in order to ease his torment. One of the servants, knowing that David played the lyre, told Saul about him so he sent for him—keep in mind that almost half of the 150 psalms, or songs, in the Book of Psalms are attributed to David. For David wasn’t simply a shepherd but also a musician. Saul was so pleased with David’s playing that he kept him close at hand. And “[w]henever the spirit from God came on Saul, David would take up his lyre and play. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him.”[4] So the relationship between Saul and David began well.

The next event between Saul and David recorded in 1 Samuel is what we looked at last week—David’s standing up to Goliath and defeating him. At the end of chapter 17, which we didn’t look at, we see the following exchange: “57 As soon as David returned from killing the Philistine, Abner”—who was the commander of the army[5]—“took him and brought him before Saul, with David still holding the Philistine’s head. 58 ‘Whose son are you, young man?’ Saul asked him. David said, ‘I am the son of your servant Jesse of Bethlehem.’” So though David had been serving Saul by playing the lyre for him as needed, David in battle made a sufficient impact on Saul that he sought to find out whose son he was. Saul wanted to find out more about David’s lineage, so impressed was he with David’s taking down of Goliath.

Subsequently, at the start of chapter 18, we learn,

After David had finished talking with Saul, Jonathan became one in spirit with David, and he loved him as himself. From that day Saul kept David with him and did not let him return home to his family. And Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself. Jonathan took off the robe he was wearing and gave it to David, along with his tunic, and even his sword, his bow and his belt.

Now if, as we’ll see, David’s treatment of Saul is an example of how to love our enemy, Jonathan, Saul’s son, is an example, as stated in the text, of how to love our neighbor as ourselves. For Jonathan should have been the rightful heir of his father, King Saul’s, throne. Yet out of his deep love for David, he handed over his right to kingship as exemplified in his making a covenant, a legal agreement, with David and in his giving over to him his robe, tunic, sword, bow, and belt. This was a remarkable sacrifice on Jonathan’s part for he was an able warrior and leader himself. Yet he stepped aside from being king that David might be king in his stead. It’s a radical example of what loving one’s neighbor as oneself looks like in practice.

As the passage continues we learn that David himself proved to be a remarkable soldier which is what we would expect given his defeat of Goliath. “Whatever mission Saul sent him on, David was so successful that Saul gave him a high rank in the army. This pleased all the troops, and Saul’s officers as well.” And “[w]hen the men were returning home after David had killed the Philistine, the women came out from all the towns of Israel to meet King Saul with singing and dancing, with joyful songs and with timbrels and lyres.” So far, so good! The victory of the troops was rightly celebrated before Saul, their leader and king. However, the song the women sang became problematic for “As they danced, they sang: ‘Saul has slain his thousands, and David his tens of thousands.’” Though slaying thousands is remarkable, slaying tens of thousands is truly extraordinary. This discrepancy in attributing the number of those slain understandably upset Saul and caused him to fear that David would get his kingdom. Therefore “…from that time on Saul kept a close eye on David.”[6] But unfortunately, Saul didn’t just keep an eye on David but the next day when David was playing the lyre for him, Saul attempted to kill David with his spear—twice—but missed both times.[7]

David’s increase in stature and Saul’s corresponding decrease continues as 1 Samuel unfolds and Saul continued to be aware of this. He “was afraid of David, because the Lord was with David but had departed from Saul. 13 So he sent David away from him and gave him command over a thousand men, and David led the troops in their campaigns.” As we’ll continue to see, Saul harbored a hope that David would be killed in battle and so be done away with. However, “14 [i]n everything [David] did he had great success, because the Lord was with him. 15 When Saul saw how successful he was, he was afraid of him. 16 But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he led them in their campaigns.”[8]

Well having failed at killing David with a spear, Saul then plotted to offer him his daughter, Merab, in exchange for fighting the Philistines. Again it was in this manner that he thought he could be rid of David without having any blame pointed at him for Saul wished for David to die in the line of duty. David, however, humbly turned down Saul’s offer of his daughter, Merab.[9] But when Saul learned that another of his daughter’s, Michal, was in love with David, he tried again and offered her to him in marriage. David once more demurred, stating, “Do you think it is a small matter to become the king’s son-in-law? I’m only a poor man and little known.”[10] But Saul pressed him, telling his servants to reply to David, “The king wants no other price for the bride than a hundred Philistine foreskins, to take revenge on his enemies.” And again, his “plan was to have David fall by the hands of the Philistines.”[11] Instead of falling, however, David “took his men with him and went out and killed two hundred Philistines and brought back their foreskins. They counted out the full number to the king so that David might become the king’s son-in-law. Then Saul gave him his daughter Michal in marriage.”[12] Well things only got worse for Saul from this point forward. “28 When Saul realized that the Lord was with David and that his daughter Michal loved David, 29 Saul became still more afraid of him, and he remained his enemy the rest of his days. 30 The Philistine commanders continued to go out to battle, and as often as they did, David met with more success than the rest of Saul’s officers, and his name became well known.” You can’t undo the LORD’s prophecy. These battles, intended by Saul to do away with David, were used by God to increase David’s stature and reputation. Samuel’s earlier words to Saul were coming to fruition right before his eyes. The kingdom was being ripped away from him and there was nothing he could do to keep David from eventually succeeding him as king.

Nonetheless we learn of yet another attempt on the part of Saul to kill David. As chapter 19 opens, “Saul told his son Jonathan and all the attendants to kill David.” The inclusion of Jonathan, however, is where the plot thickens for, as we’ve seen, Jonathan had willingly given up his own right to be king and handed it over to David. So Jonathan warned David that his father was “looking for a chance to kill” him.[13] And the next time David played the lyre for a yet again disturbed Saul, the latter “tried to pin him to the wall with his spear, but David eluded him as Saul drove the spear into the wall. That night David made good his escape.”[14] When Saul then “sent men to David’s house to watch it and to kill him in the morning,” David’s wife, Michal warned him and David again escaped and ended up going to see Samuel, telling him of all that had occurred.[15] David later had a heart-to-heart with Jonathan, Saul’s son, and he “made a covenant with the house of David, saying, ‘May the Lord call David’s enemies to account.’ 17 And Jonathan had David reaffirm his oath out of love for him, because he loved him as he loved himself.”[16] When it became clear that Saul was intent on killing David, Jonathan again went to him. In a touching scene at the end of chapter 19 David “bowed down before Jonathan three times, with his face to the ground. Then they kissed each other and wept together—but David wept the most. 42 Jonathan said to David, ‘Go in peace, for we have sworn friendship with each other in the name of the Lord, saying, ‘The Lord is witness between you and me, and between your descendants and my descendants forever.’ Then David left, and Jonathan went back to the town.”[17] So Jonathan, Saul’s son, ever remained loyal to David, the future king.

David continued to have success in battle upon leaving Saul’s court. After going to a priest named Ahimelek, the latter offered David Goliath’s sword, which he gladly accepted and used.[18] But for having helped David out, Ahimelek and all but one of the 85 priests who were with him, were tragically ordered by Saul to be put to death.[19] Even so, over the course of time, David drew a following. “All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. About four hundred men were with him.”[20] So the LORD continued to guide David’s paths. At one point he used a prophet named Gad to warn him to leave Moab. And David himself regularly inquired and received guidance from the LORD as to what he should do. And, unlike Saul, David did as the LORD commanded.[21]

Now despite Saul’s relentless attempts to take David’s life, David himself spared Saul’s life not once, but twice. The first time this occurred David went so far as to “cut off a corner of Saul’s robe”[22] though he didn’t touch Saul himself. Yet “[a]fterward, David was conscience-stricken for having cut off a corner of his robe. He said to his men, ‘The Lord forbid that I should do such a thing to my master, the Lord’s anointed, or lay my hand on him; for he is the anointed of the Lord.’ With these words David sharply rebuked his men and did not allow them to attack Saul.”[23] Here David had had a golden opportunity to do away with Saul once and for all, yet he didn’t do so for he saw him as “the LORD’s anointed” and therefore as being out of bounds.

The second time David spared Saul’s life, one of the men who was with him, Abishai, encouraged him to kill Saul. “But David said to Abishai, ‘Don’t destroy him! Who can lay a hand on the Lord’s anointed and be guiltless? 10 As surely as the Lord lives,’ he said, ‘the Lord himself will strike him, or his time will come and he will die, or he will go into battle and perish. 11 But the Lord forbid that I should lay a hand on the Lord’s anointed. Now get the spear and water jug that are near his head, and let’s go.’”[24] So in this second glimpse into David’s heart, we see how doing God’s will was ever first and foremost on his mind.

Now one ironic component in all of this is that Saul, in his despair, sought out a medium at Endor and had her bring back Samuel. Though in life Saul didn’t do Samuel’s bidding as God’s mouthpiece and representative, after Samuel died, he sought him out for advice. Their exchange is recorded in chapter 28:

15 Samuel said to Saul, “Why have you disturbed me by bringing me up?” “I am in great distress,” Saul said. “The Philistines are fighting against me, and God has departed from me. He no longer answers me, either by prophets or by dreams. So I have called on you to tell me what to do.” 16 Samuel said, “Why do you consult me, now that the Lord has departed from you and become your enemy? 17 The Lord has done what he predicted through me. The Lord has torn the kingdom out of your hands and given it to one of your neighbors—to David. 18 Because you did not obey the Lord or carry out his fierce wrath against the Amalekites, the Lord has done this to you today. 19 The Lord will deliver both Israel and you into the hands of the Philistines, and tomorrow you and your sons will be with me. The Lord will also give the army of Israel into the hands of the Philistines.”[25]

So Samuel’s response to Saul never waivered and even this, his final prophecy, came true. While in battle the next day the Philistines did indeed kill Saul’s sons, including Jonathan. A wounded Saul then asked his armor-bearer to draw his sword through him but when his armor-bearer refused, Saul tragically “took his own sword and fell on it”[26]—although the man who reported this to David later claimed he was the one who had killed Saul at his request.[27] Regardless, upon hearing of Saul’s death we see how as stated in verses 11–12: “11 …David and all the men with him took hold of their clothes and tore them. 12 They mourned and wept and fasted till evening for Saul and his son Jonathan, and for the army of the Lord and for the nation of Israel, because they had fallen by the sword.”

Again, I’ve taken the time to highlight some key events that took place between Saul and David because it helps us see better appreciate his lament for Saul and Jonathan. By rights David should have been stricken to hear of Jonathan’s death but delighted to hear of Saul’s—but he wasn’t. To the very end David made a decision to honor Saul, viewing him as he was—Israel’s first king, anointed by God, and therefore to be respected as such in this role. Even though by his disobedience and pride Saul had that kingship taken away from him, with no heir to carry on his lineage, until the day that he died David treated Saul as the king God had called him to be.

Upon hearing of their deaths, David ordered that his lament for Saul and Jonathan, recorded at the end of this chapter, be taught to the people of Judah—and for the curious, we’ve no record of the Book of Jashar.[28] The refrain that is repeated by David the psalmist, David the song–writer, is found for the first time in verse 19, “How the mighty have fallen!” followed in verse 20 by David expressing a desire to protect Saul from being derided by his enemies. As we’ve noted before Gath and Ashkelon marked out the territory of the Philistines. Both were major cities that were located the closest and farthest from Israel’s borders, respectively, and thus represented the entire Philistine nation.[29] The death of Saul was an occasion for grieving not rejoicing by his enemies and David wanted to make sure these enemies were given no opportunity to rejoice. The “Mountains of Gilboa,” mentioned in verse 21, were also significant for Gilboa was where Saul had set up camp with Israel in his final standoff against the Philistines;[30] it was where Jonathan was killed[31] and where Saul finally took his own life after he was critically wounded;[32] and it was where the Philistines who found Saul’s body, stripped off his armor and cut off his head.[33] For being the scene of such sacrilege, David in effect called a curse upon the mountains of Gilboa so that no dew nor rain would ever fall there.

David next acknowledged what great warriors both Jonathan and Saul had been—how they had been loved and admired in life and joined together in death. He then called upon the “daughters of Israel” to weep for Saul in verse 24, reminding them of how Saul had provided for them. After repeating the refrain, “How the mighty have fallen in battle!,” David turned to Jonathan whom he referred to as his brother who was “very dear” to him. So much so that he went on to state at the end of verse 26, “Your love for me was wonderful, more wonderful than that of women.” This statement is a beautiful expression of Jonathan’s loyalty to David. As we’ve already noted Jonathan had voluntarily made a covenant with David, and was key in saving him from his father, Saul, even endangering his own life to do so. Too, whereas Jonathan had been the rightful heir to Saul’s throne, he had voluntarily given up that right and passed it on to David. Though David had become Jonathan’s brother-in-law when he married his sister, Michal, Jonathan proved to be more loyal to him even than Michal. So these are some of the reasons why David praised Jonathan’s love as being more wonderful than that of women for Jonathan’s love arose from loyalty and friendship, not law. Jonathan was a true brother and friend to David.

And if Jonathan’s treatment of David exemplified the Old Testament mandate to love your neighbor as yourself[34]—again, Jonathan gave up his kingship that David might be king—David’s treatment of Saul exemplified the mandate to love your enemy.[35] Again, Saul was David’s enemy not because he saw him as such but because Saul viewed David as such. And in considering David’s treatment of Saul, we see some extraordinary examples of how to love your enemy even to their death. David’s lament for Saul contains elevated praise for him. By teaching this lament to the people, David provided leadership about how Saul was to be viewed—as a warrior who fought for his people. He further sought to protect Saul from derision from his enemies, even cursing the place where he died. And in praising Saul along with his son, Jonathan, David further elevated Saul— both were “loved and admired;” both were “swifter than eagles” and “stronger than lions” (verse 23); both are included in the refrain, “How the mighty have fallen!” (verses 1, 25, 27). I confess that I can’t imagine offering similar praise. It would be tempting to acknowledge some of Saul’s strengths while pointing out his many flaws and the many times he acted inappropriately. But David didn’t.

All of this is extraordinary given that, again, twice David had the opportunity to take Saul’s life. As Ron shared with me when we were talking about the relationship between Saul and David this past week, David understood well that an opportunity is not an invitation. Though it would have been easy for him to spiritualize and conclude that it was the LORD who had organized his circumstances so that he might easily kill Saul and thereby take the throne God had promised him through Samuel, his mouthpiece’s, anointing, David instead chose to wait on God’s timing. In this his actions are reminiscent of Satan tempting Jesus in the wilderness to worship him that he might be given all the kingdoms of the world. Jesus would be—and now is—LORD over all kingdoms but this was to be in God’s way and in God’s time. And so, too, David waited on God’s way and time. In fact he probably had to wait a good fifteen or so years between the time Samuel anointed him as king while he was still a youth and the time in which Saul died.[36] Yet throughout this period of waiting David lived faithfully, trusting in his wits and, more importantly, turning to and trusting in his LORD.

I think that few things in life are more difficult than forgiving someone who has hurt or harmed us especially if they never seek out our forgiveness. In David’s case, Saul not only sought to harm him but he actively sought to kill and do away with him. Yet whereas Saul continually sought to kill David and those who aided him, David continually sought to honor Saul even when at least twice he had the opportunity to kill him easily. I believe that the only way he was able to do what was right rather than doing what was expedient was by waiting on and trusting in God’s providence and timing. As Joseph, that great patriarch earlier said when his brothers feared for their lives after having sold him into slavery, “Am I in the place of God? 20 You intended to harm me, but God intended it for good to accomplish what is now being done, the saving of many lives.”[37] These are humbling and important reminders for us to ponder. As Paul teaches us, no matter what our circumstances we who know and belong to Christ can be confident that “in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.”[38] So dear brothers and sisters, let us today and always commend ourselves to and trust in our gracious Father, Son, and Holy Spirit’s goodness and greatness.

Let us pray.


[1] 1 Samuel 15:7.

[2] 1 Samuel 17:37.

[3] 1 Samuel 16:14: Now the Spirit of the Lord had departed from Saul, and an evil[Or and a harmful] spirit from the Lord tormented him.

[4] 1 Samuel 16:23.

[5] 1 Samuel 17:55.

[6] 1 Samuel 18:9.

[7] 1 Samuel 18:10–11: 10 The next day an evil[Or a harmful] spirit from God came forcefully on Saul. He was prophesying in his house, while David was playing the lyre, as he usually did. Saul had a spear in his hand 11 and he hurled it, saying to himself, “I’ll pin David to the wall.” But David eluded him twice.

[8] 1 Samuel 18:12–16.

[9] 1 Samuel 18:17–19.

[10] 1 Samuel 18:23.

[11] 1 Samuel 18:25.

[12] 1 Samuel 18:27.

[13] 1 Samuel 19:2.

[14] 1 Samuel 19:10.

[15] 1 Samuel 19:11–12, 18.

[16] 1 Samuel 20:16–17.

[17] 1 Samuel 20:41–2.

[18] 1 Samuel 21:8–9.

[19] 1 Samuel 22:9–19. Abiathar, Ahhimelek’s son, fled and joined David who offered him protection (verses 20–23).

[20] 1 Samuel 22:2.

[21] E.g., 1 Samuel 23:1–5:When David was told, “Look, the Philistines are fighting against Keilah and are looting the threshing floors,” he inquired of the Lord, saying, “Shall I go and attack these Philistines?”

The Lord answered him, “Go, attack the Philistines and save Keilah.” But David’s men said to him, “Here in Judah we are afraid. How much more, then, if we go to Keilah against the Philistine forces!” Once again David inquired of the Lord, and the Lord answered him, “Go down to Keilah, for I am going to give the Philistines into your hand.” So David and his men went to Keilah, fought the Philistines and carried off their livestock. He inflicted heavy losses on the Philistines and saved the people of Keilah.; 1 Samuel 23:9–13:When David learned that Saul was plotting against him, he said to Abiathar the priest, “Bring the ephod.” 10 David said, “Lord, God of Israel, your servant has heard definitely that Saul plans to come to Keilah and destroy the town on account of me. 11 Will the citizens of Keilah surrender me to him? Will Saul come down, as your servant has heard? Lord, God of Israel, tell your servant.” And the Lord said, “He will.” 12 Again David asked, “Will the citizens of Keilah surrender me and my men to Saul?” And the Lord said, “They will.” 13 So David and his men, about six hundred in number, left Keilah and kept moving from place to place. When Saul was told that David had escaped from Keilah, he did not go there.; 1 Samuel 30:7–10, 17–18:Then David said to Abiathar the priest, the son of Ahimelek, “Bring me the ephod.” Abiathar brought it to him, and David inquired of the Lord, “Shall I pursue this raiding party? Will I overtake them?” “Pursue them,” he answered. “You will certainly overtake them and succeed in the rescue.” David and the six hundred men with him came to the Besor Valley, where some stayed behind. 10 Two hundred of them were too exhausted to cross the valley, but David and the other four hundred continued the pursuit….17 David fought them from dusk until the evening of the next day, and none of them got away, except four hundred young men who rode off on camels and fled. 18 David recovered everything the Amalekites had taken, including his two wives.

[22] 1 Samuel 24:4.

[23] 1 Samuel 24:5–7.

[24] 1 Samuel 26:9–11.

[25] 1 Samuel 28:15–19.

[26] 1 Samuel 31:4.

[27] 1 Samuel 1:9–10: “Then he said to me, ‘Stand here by me and kill me! I’m in the throes of death, but I’m still alive.’10 “So I stood beside him and killed him, because I knew that after he had fallen he could not survive. And I took the crown that was on his head and the band on his arm and have brought them here to my lord.” It is likely the Amalekite thought David would reward him for granting Saul’s request. He was mistaken, as stated clearly in verses 13–16: 13 David said to the young man who brought him the report, “Where are you from?” “I am the son of a foreigner, an Amalekite,” he answered. 14 David asked him, “Why weren’t you afraid to lift your hand to destroy the Lord’s anointed?” 15 Then David called one of his men and said, “Go, strike him down!” So he struck him down, and he died. 16 For David had said to him, “Your blood be on your own head. Your own mouth testified against you when you said, ‘I killed the Lord’s anointed.’”

[28] According to the Crossway ESV Study Bible: “The Book of Jashar is a non-biblical written source which also included Josh. 10:12–13 and, according to the Septuagint text, Solomon’s poem in 1 Kings 8:12–13.

[29] Zondervan NIV Study Bible.

[30] 1 Samuel 28:4: The Philistines assembled and came and set up camp at Shunem, while Saul gathered all Israel and set up camp at Gilboa.; 1 Samuel 31:1: Now the Philistines fought against Israel; the Israelites fled before them, and many fell dead on Mount Gilboa.

[31] 1 Samuel 31:2:  The Philistines were in hot pursuit of Saul and his sons, and they killed his sons Jonathan, Abinadab and Malki-Shua.

[32] 1 Samuel 31:3–4:The fighting grew fierce around Saul, and when the archers overtook him, they wounded him critically.Saul said to his armor-bearer, “Draw your sword and run me through, or these uncircumcised fellows will come and run me through and abuse me.”

But his armor-bearer was terrified and would not do it; so Saul took his own sword and fell on it.

[33] 1 Samuel 31:8–9:The next day, when the Philistines came to strip the dead, they found Saul and his three sons fallen on Mount Gilboa. They cut off his head and stripped off his armor, and they sent messengers throughout the land of the Philistines to proclaim the news in the temple of their idols and among their people.

[34] Leviticus 19:18: “Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against anyone among your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord.” Deuteronomy 6:5: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.”

[35] Exodus 23:4–5: “If you come across your enemy’s ox or donkey wandering off, be sure to return it. If you see the donkey of someone who hates you fallen down under its load, do not leave it there; be sure you help them with it.; Matthew 5:43–45: 43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ 44 But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45 that you may be children of your Father in heaven. He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.

[36] In 2 Samuel 5:4, it states that David was 30 years old when he became king. If Saul reigned 40+ years, and David was, say 16 when the Goliath account occurred, he must have been reigning at least 25 years before the Goliath incident…. [30 – 15 = 15; 40 – 15= 25]

[37] Genesis 50:19b–20.

[38] Romans 8:28.

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